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Topic: Research

The new items published under this topic are as follows.

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A study of cardio-pulmonary efficiency in different categories of runners

Posted by: pshields on Wednesday, November 26, 2003 - 04:07 AM 1444 Reads
Research

A study of cardio-pulmonary efficiency in different categories of runners.

Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2000 Apr;44(2):220-4. 

Dasgupta PK, Mukhopadhyay AK, De AK.
Department of Physiology, Bankura Sammilani Medical College.

Selected short distance runners, middle distance runners and long distance runners were subjected to graded exercise on a treadmill. The maximum aerobic power (VO2 max) and other indices related to oxygen transport system viz. heart rate, ventilation volume, breathing reserve, dyspnoeic index, O2 pulse and RQ were recorded at respective VO2 max work loads, and the values were compared.



Note: Long distance runners seem to have higher VO2max, lower resting pulse and a higher maximum pulse than other runners:- Paul

Does psychological stress improve physical performance?

Posted by: pshields on Monday, November 24, 2003 - 04:04 AM 1418 Reads
Research

Does psychological stress improve physical performance?

Tohoku J Exp Med. 1999 Feb;187(2):111-20.

Takemura Y, Kikuchi S, Inaba Y.
Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

The purpose of this study is to determine whether psychological stress enhances physical performance and how personality traits affect it.



Note: It seems that stress can improve performance for some:- Paul

Popular sports supplements and ergogenic Aids

Posted by: pshields on Monday, October 13, 2003 - 04:02 AM 2474 Reads
Research

Popular sports supplements and ergogenic Aids.

Sports Med. 2003;33(12):921-39. 

Juhn M.
Department of Family Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, USA.

This article reviews the evidence-based ergogenic potential and adverse effects of 14 of the most common products in use by recreational and elite athletes today. Both legal and prohibited products are discussed. This is an aggressively marketed and controversial area of sports medicine worldwide. It is therefore prudent for the clinician to be well versed in the more popular supplements and drugs reputed to be ergogenic in order to distinguish fact from fiction.





Fluid Replacement during Marathon Running

Posted by: pshields on Saturday, October 11, 2003 - 04:50 AM 1655 Reads
Research

Fluid Replacement during Marathon Running.

Clin J Sport Med. 2003 Sep;13(5):309-18.

Noakes T.

SUMMARY: During endurance exercise, about 75% of the energy produced from metabolism is in the form of heat, which cannot accumulate. The remaining 25% of energy available can be used for movement. As running pace increases, the rate of heat production increases. Also, the larger one's body mass, the greater the heat production at a particular pace. 





Preventing running injuries. Practical approach for family doctors

Posted by: pshields on Friday, October 10, 2003 - 04:01 AM 1454 Reads
Research

Preventing running injuries. Practical approach for family doctors.

Can Fam Physician. 2003 Sep;49:1101-9.

Johnston CA, Taunton JE, Lloyd-Smith DR, McKenzie DC.
camj73@yahoo.ca

OBJECTIVE: To present a practical approach for preventing running injuries. 

QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Much of the research on running injuries is in the form of expert opinion and comparison trials. Recent systematic reviews have summarized research in orthotics, stretching before running, and interventions to prevent soft tissue injuries. 





Kenyan dominance in distance running

Posted by: pshields on Wednesday, October 08, 2003 - 08:30 AM 2677 Reads
Research

Kenyan dominance in distance running.

Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2003 Sep;136(1):161-70. Links

Larsen HB.
The Copenhagen Muscle Research Centre, Rigshospitalet, Section 7652, Blegdamsvej 9, DK-2100, Copenhagen, Denmark

Critical physiological factors for performance in running are maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), fractional VO2max utilization and running economy. While Kenyan and Caucasian elite runners are able to reach very high, but similar maximal oxygen uptake levels, the VO2max of black South African elite runners seems to be slightly lower. Moreover, the studies of black and white South African runners indicate that the former are able to sustain the highest fraction of VO2max during long distance running.





Effect of creatine supplementation on body composition and performance

Posted by: pshields on Monday, September 08, 2003 - 04:18 AM 1501 Reads
Research

Effect of creatine supplementation on body composition and performance: a meta-analysis.

Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab.
2003 Jun;13(2):198-226.

Department of Exercise Science, Physical Education, and Recreation at Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529-0196, USA.

BACKGROUND: Creatine supplementation (CS) has been reported to increase body mass and improve performance in high-intensity, short-duration exercise tasks. Research on CS, most of which has come into existence since 1994, has been the focus of several qualitative reviews, but only one meta-analysis, which was conducted with a limited number of studies. 



Note: It seems creatine supplementation does not help running performance. :- Paul

SUPERIOR PERFORMANCE OF AFRICAN RUNNERS IN WARM HUMID CONDITIONS

Posted by: pshields on Saturday, September 06, 2003 - 04:19 AM 1614 Reads
Research

SUPERIOR PERFORMANCE OF AFRICAN RUNNERS IN WARM HUMID BUT NOT IN COOL ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS.

J Appl Physiol.

2003 Aug 29 [Epub ahead of print]
Marino FE, Lambert MI, Noakes TD.
School of Human Movement Studies, Charles Sturt University, Bathurst, NSW, Australia.

There is evidence that athletes of (East) African ancestry currently outperform Caucasian runners in distance running. To date there are no published studies examining the performance of African and Caucasian runners in different ambient conditions. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to examine the running performances and associated thermoregulatory responses of African and Caucasian runners in cool and warm conditions.



Note: African runners are better in the heat but similar to caucasians in cooler conditions. :- Paul

Training and bioenergetic characteristics in elite male and female Kenyan runner

Posted by: pshields on Monday, July 28, 2003 - 04:30 AM 1763 Reads
Research

Training and bioenergetic characteristics in elite male and female Kenyan runners.

Billat V, Lepretre PM, Heugas AM, Laurence MH, Salim D, Koralsztein JP.
Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003 Feb;35(2):297-304; discussion 305-6.
Faculty of Sport Science, University of Evry-Val d'Essonne, France. veronique.billat@wanadoo.fr

PURPOSE: This study compares the training characteristics and the physical profiles of top-class male and female Kenyan long-distance runners.



Note: Note: vVo2Max is again shown to be the key to predicting performance. Hard workouts seem to improve this. :- Paul

From the cradle to the grave: how fast can we run?

Posted by: pshields on Saturday, July 26, 2003 - 04:15 AM 1682 Reads
Research

From the cradle to the grave: how fast can we run?

Sterken E.

J Sports Sci. 2003 Jun;21(6):479-91.
Department of Economics, University of Groningen, The Netherlands. e.sterken@eco.rug.nl

I model average running speed on distances from 5000 m to the marathon as a function of age, distance and sex.





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