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Topic: Research

The new items published under this topic are as follows.

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Do gender differences in running performance disappear with distance?

Posted by: pshields on Friday, April 16, 2004 - 04:06 AM 1668 Reads

Do gender differences in running performance disappear with distance?

Can J Appl Physiol. 2004 Apr;29(2):139-45.

Coast JR, Blevins JS, Wilson BA.

It has been suggested that gender differences in running should disappear as distances increase, particularly past the marathon. This suggestion is primarily based on differences in fuel utilization, muscle damage following exercise, relative improvements in performance over the past decades, and on the analysis of marathon vs. ultramarathon performances of men and women.

Note: It seems that Ultramarathon results don't support that women get closer to men in performance as distance increases:- Paul

The physiology of deep-water running

Posted by: pshields on Tuesday, February 03, 2004 - 04:27 AM 1900 Reads

The physiology of deep-water running.

J Sports Sci. 2003 Dec;21(12):959-72.

Reilly T, Dowzer CN, Cable NT.
Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, 15-21 Webster Street, Liverpool L3 2ET, UK.

Deep-water running is performed in the deep end of a swimming pool, normally with the aid of a flotation vest. The method is used for purposes of preventing injury and promoting recovery from strenuous exercise and as a form of supplementary training for cardiovascular fitness.

Note: Deep water running seems effective at maintaining fitness for at least up to 6 weeks:- Paul

Fat oxidation in men and women endurance athletes in running and cycling

Posted by: pshields on Sunday, February 01, 2004 - 04:26 AM 1913 Reads

Fat oxidation in men and women endurance athletes in running and cycling.

Int J Sports Med. 2004 Jan;25(1):38-44.

Knechtle B, Muller G, Willmann F, Kotteck K, Eser P, Knecht H.
Institute of Sports Medicine, Swiss Paraplegic Centre, Nottwil, Switzerland.

Recent studies showed that the maximal fat oxidation seems to be different in men and women and that it can be influenced by type and intensity of exercise. 

Note: Looks like running is better than cycling for burning fat and that the harder the better. About anaerobic threshold seems optimum (Where you have difficulty maintaining a conversation) :- Paul

Effects of sodium citrate on endurance performance

Posted by: pshields on Tuesday, December 23, 2003 - 04:29 AM 1780 Reads

Effects of sodium citrate ingestion before exercise on endurance performance in well trained college runners.

Oopik V, Saaremets I, Medijainen L, Karelson K, Janson T, Timpmann S.

Br J Sports Med. 2003 Dec;37(6):485-9.
Institute of Exercise Biology, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.

OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that sodium citrate administered two hours before exercise improves performance in a 5 km running time trial.

Note: Looks like Sodium Citrate provides a performance boost in 5km events at least:- Paul

Protective Effect of Vitamin E

Posted by: pshields on Sunday, December 21, 2003 - 05:25 AM 1530 Reads

Ultrastructural changes of the skeletal muscle cells of rats subjected to exhausting exercises and the protective effect of vitamin E.

Luo JW, Yu B, Qin CH, Yang JC, Lin WT, Wen XY, Huang LY.

Di Yi Jun Yi Da Xue Xue Bao. 2003 Dec;23(12):1326-8.
Department of Othopeadic and Traumatology, Zhujiang Hospital, First Military Medical University, Guangzhou 510282, China.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the ultrastructural changes of the mitochondria in the skeletal muscle cells of rats subjected to repeated exhausting exercises on treadmill and the protective effct of oral vitamin E.

Note: It looks like Vitamin E has a beneficial effect (at least on Rats):- Paul

Effect of Aging on Functional Capacity

Posted by: pshields on Friday, December 05, 2003 - 04:18 AM 1955 Reads

Dynamic exercise performance in Masters athletes: insight into the effects of primary human aging on physiological functional capacity.

J Appl Physiol. 2003 Nov;95(5):2152-62.

Tanaka H, Seals DR.
Department of Kinesiology and Health Education, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712, USA.

Physiological functional capacity (PFC) is defined here as the ability to perform the physical tasks of daily life and the ease with which these tasks can be performed. For the past decade, we have sought to determine the effect of primary (healthy) adult human aging on PFC and the potential modulatory influences of gender and habitual aerobic exercise status on this process by studying young adult and Masters athletes. An initial approach to determining the effects of aging on PFC involved investigating changes in peak exercise performance with age in highly trained and competitive athletes.

Note: Keep exercising as you get older:- Paul

Vigorous exercise and the population distribution of body weight

Posted by: pshields on Wednesday, December 03, 2003 - 04:06 AM 1466 Reads

Vigorous exercise and the population distribution of body weight.

Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2003 Oct 21

Williams PT.
Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Donner Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, USA.

BACKGROUND:: While the benefits of vigorous exercise on body weight and regional adiposity are well established, whether these benefits affect equally the highest and lowest portions of the weight distribution have not been previously reported. The impact of exercise on the more extreme body weights and body circumferences is clinically important because these values represent individuals at greatest health risk.

Note: Running seems to be the best form of exercise for weight loss:- Paul

Exercise induced brain cell growth

Posted by: pshields on Tuesday, December 02, 2003 - 04:17 AM 1550 Reads

Exercise increases hippocampal neurogenesis to high levels but does not improve spatial learning in mice bred for increased voluntary wheel running.

Behav Neurosci. 2003 Oct;117(5):1006-16.

Rhodes JS, van Praag H, Jeffrey S, Girard I, Mitchell GS, Garland T Jr, Gage FH.
Department of Zoology, University of Wisconsin at Madison, Madison, WI, USA.

The hippocampus is important for the acquisition of new memories. It is also one of the few regions in the adult mammalian brain that can generate new nerve cells. The authors tested the hypothesis that voluntary exercise increases neurogenesis and enhances spatial learning in mice selectively bred for high levels of wheel running (S mice).

Note: It seems exercise creates new brain cells in mice:- Paul

Common stress fractures

Posted by: pshields on Sunday, November 30, 2003 - 04:06 AM 1508 Reads

Common stress fractures.

Am Fam Physician. 2003 Oct 15;68(8):1527-32

Sanderlin BW, Raspa RF.
Naval Branch Medical Clinic, Naval Air Station, Fort Worth, Texas 76127, USA.

Lower extremity stress fractures are common injuries most often associated with participation in sports involving running, jumping, or repetitive stress. The initial diagnosis can be made by identifying localized bone pain that increases with weight bearing or repetitive use.

Improved Running Economy after Simulated Altitude Training

Posted by: pshields on Friday, November 28, 2003 - 04:05 AM 1735 Reads


J Appl Physiol. 2003 Nov 7

Saunders PU, Telford RD, Pyne DB, Cunningham RB, Gore CJ, Hahn AG, Hawley JA.
Department of Physiology, Australian Institute of Sport, Belconnen, ACT, Australia; Exercise Metabolism Group, School of Medical Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

To investigate the effect of altitude exposure on running economy (RE), 22 elite distance runners (VO2max 72.8 4.4 ml.min(-1).kg(-1); training volume 125 27 km.wk(-1)) homogenous for VO2max and training volume were assigned to one of three groups; live-high (simulated altitude 2000-3100 m) train-low (natural altitude 600 m; LHTL, n=10), live-moderate train-moderate (natural altitude 1500-2000 m; LMTM, n=10) or live-low train-low (natural altitude 600 m; LLTL, n=13) for a period of 20 d.

Note: Altitude training seems to increase running economy although the mechanism is not well understood:- Paul

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